Smartwatch market gathering steam as Australians turn to wearable gadgets amid flat smartphone sales

Smartwatch sales now make up a third of all smart wearables sold

smart watch v2.png

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA – After a modest start, smartwatches are starting to make their way into Australian consumer’s shopping lists and sales are up, according to a new study by emerging technology analyst firm Telsyte.

New findings from the Telsyte Australian Smartphone & Wearable Devices Market Study 2016-2020 shows smartwatch sales grew by 89 per cent in H1 2016 compared to H1 2015, and now make up one third of the smart wearable device category. Overall, more than 1 million smart wearable devices were sold during the same period.

Apple Watch is the leading smartwatch brand with greater than 50 per cent market share followed by Samsung Gear and Fitbit Blaze.

“As smartphone replacement cycles have lengthened, consumers are turning to other gadgets and smartwatches have started to capture the imagination,” Telsyte Managing Director, Foad Fadaghi says.

“We might be seeing the beginning of a substitution effect where consumers are choosing a smartwatch over a new smartphone,” Fadaghi says.

Telsyte estimates that one in three smart wearables sold in the first half of 2016 were smartwatches compared to less than a quarter in 2015.

A number of factors are driving the smartwatch market growth according to Telsyte, including:

  • Australians focusing on health and fitness, with many upgrading to smartwatches from smart fitness bands such as those produced by Fitbit and Garmin. Telsyte research shows that 47 per cent of smart wearable users exercise a minimum equivalent of 30 minutes walking per day compared to 30 per cent for the general public.
  • Price reductions and greater availability through carrier channels, including bundles and repayment plans that make buying a smartwatch easier and more affordable.
  • More stylish designs and options for watch faces and bands that have greater appeal to both genders.
  • Mobile contactless payments using a smartwatch (such as Android Pay, Samsung Pay and Apple Pay) can make the payment experience faster than with a card or smartphone.

“The killer apps for early adopters of smartwatches seem to be fitness apps and mobile payments,” Fadaghi says.

Telsyte forecasts 37 per cent of Australians will be wearing a smart wearable (both bands and smartwatches) by 2020, with a substantial increase in sales in 2017 and 2018 driven by the arrival of a second generation Apple Watch, continued price decreases and more uptake of mobile payments on Apple and Android compatible wearables. Telsyte estimates 14 per cent of Australians (all ages, approximately 3.5 million) currently wear a smart wearable device of some sort.

Apple expected to bounce back with iPhone 7

Australian smartphone sales in the first half of 2016 were flat (up only 3.8 per cent) according to Telsyte, with 3.8 million units sold compared to 3.7 million in the same period last year.

Android device sales accelerated with 62 per cent of unit sales in H1 2016 compared to 55 per cent in H1 2015. Both ends of the Android market grew with premium models such as the Samsung Galaxy S7 variants and the Huawei Nexus 6P attracting high-end buyers, while late adopters, or consumers that have typically retained their regular mobile phones for as long as possible, gravitating to lower end models.

In H1 2016, the market leaders (in order) were Samsung, Apple and Huawei, together totalling 79 per cent of all units sold. Despite the slowdown in Apple sales in H1 2016, Telsyte believes Apple sales will bounce back in H2 with the arrival of the iPhone 7, and expected price decreases on older Apple models (e.g. iPhone 6S).

Telsyte also forecasts the arrival of the iPhone 7 will unleash a wave of hand-me-down and second hand older model iPhones which might impact the sales of sub-premium Android models throughout the next 12 months.

Overall, Telsyte forecasts annual smartphone sales to remain similar to 2015, if Apple can impress consumers with its iPhone 7 and attract buyers to its major product refresh that typically happens every second year.

“Android had a good run in the first half of 2016, however trend and purchase intention data indicates Apple consumers are on the verge of an iPhone upgrade cycle,” Telsyte Senior Analyst, Alvin Lee, says.

For further information on the study or media enquiries contact:

Foad Fadaghi, Managing Director, Tel: +612 9235 5851, ffadaghi@telsyte.com.au or
Alvin Lee, Senior Analyst, Tel: +612 9235 5890, alee@telsyte.com.au

The Telsyte Australian Smartphone & Wearable Devices Market Study 2016-2020 is a comprehensive study which provides subscribers with:

  • Smartphone market sizing estimates, platform and vendor market shares and forecasts
  • Smart wrist-based wearables market sizing estimates, platform and vendor market shares and forecasts
  • End user trends across devices, usage, platforms and operators
  • Purchase intentions and acquisition channels
  • Device profiles and Telsyte analyst ratings of tested devices

Telsyte measures smart wearable devices in the Telsyte Australian Smartphone & Wearable Devices Market Study 2016-2020 as computing accessories worn on a user’s wrist typically paired and controlled via a smartphone. Examples includes products from Adidas, Apple, Asus, Fitbit, Garmin, Huawei, Jawbone, LG, Microsoft, Motorola, Nike, Pebble, Samsung, Sony, TomTom and others.

In preparing this study, Telsyte used:

  • An online survey of a representative sample of Australians 16+ years of age conducted with 1,097 respondents in July 2016. An additional 394 Australian respondents, 16 years of age and older were surveyed to specifically determine smartphone, smart wearables and tablet purchases made between January 1 2016 to June 30 2016
  • Interviews conducted with executives from service providers, network operators, manufacturers, retailers, financial analysts and channel partners.
  • Financial reports released by service providers and manufacturers.
  • On-going monitoring of local and global market and vendor trends.
  • Analyst reviews of leading smartphone and wearable devices.

Editor’s note:

Telsyte measures sales of devices (“sell out”), not shipments or sales to retailers or carriers (sometimes called “sell-in”). Telsyte believes this is a more accurate measure of performance of products in a marketplace. Telsyte does not rely on disclosure from vendors or general assumptions made for large multinational companies that do not release local market data. Telsyte uses a comprehensive methodology that includes surveys of consumers, discussions with vendors, carriers and their partners, retailers, as well as regular interactions with leading Australian financial analysts that track retail and telecoms companies listed on the ASX. In addition, public financial results from manufacturers and carriers are used.  Telsyte tests a wide range of products in real life usage scenarios and conducts satisfaction and repeat purchase surveys with large and representative samples of Australian smart device users. Telsyte is a pioneer in measuring and reporting smartphone sales in Australia and has been providing insights on mobile technologies since 2006.

About Telsyte

Telsyte delivers strategic insights and advisory services to businesses that are producing, or are impacted by, disruptive technologies. Telsyte publishes studies into emerging consumer and business markets and provides custom research and advisory services. Telsyte is an independent business unit of CSC. www.telsyte.com.au

The material in this article is copyright protected and not intended to be altered, copied, distributed or used for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, except for news reporting, comment, criticism, teaching and scholarship.

Australia set for IoT@home spending spree as connected devices market grows to $4 billion by 2020

Australian household expected to have 29 internet connected devices in the home by the end of the decade

IOT3.png

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA – Australian consumers are on the verge of embarking on a spending spree on Internet-connected devices for their homes to control everything from security cameras to heating and cooling systems, according to a new market study by emerging technology analyst firm Telsyte.

Telsyte forecasts early adopters will spend about $383 million on range of products and services categorised as part of the “Internet of Things”, or IoT, for the home in 2016, growing rapidly to $4 billion by 2020. Telsyte estimates that consumers spent $231 million in 2015.

Growth is expected to accelerate in 2018, as a range of new products come onto the market and manufacturers integrate wireless chipsets into the majority of their product ranges. The fastest growing segments is anticipated to be smart appliances and IoT@home services which includes cloud-based “intelligent” services.

Annual revenue ($ Millions)
2020 (f)
CAGR (16-20)
Smart Energy - Includes smart sensors, power points, lighting, and other components or as part of an energy system.
$996
64%
Smart Security – Includes alarms, cameras (including baby and pet monitors), motion sensors, smart locks, and other components such as intercoms.
$635
63%
Smart Lifestyle – Includes whitegoods, smart gardening and other home lifestyle products (including pool and garage)
$1,698
114%
Smart hubs (dedicated) – used to control (via voice or other mechanisms) components of a smart home
$69
65%
IoT@home services and installation (including installation, subscriptions, managed services and smart cloud services)
$624
76%
Total
$4,022
80%

Telsyte estimates that the average Australian household has 11.0 connected devices in 2016, up from 9.2 in 2015. Telsyte forecasts this to expand to 28.7 by 2020, as internet connectivity increasingly becomes built into a range of every day appliances*.

Telsyte predicts four main themes will be critical to the acceptance of IoT@home technologies:

  1. Integration with existing mainstream smartphone and app ecosystems, whereby users can control features and be alerted via their smartphones and smart wearable devices.
     
  2. A modular approach and gamification, which will encourage users to easily add modules (or devices) to their IoT@home environment through recommendation engines and offers, or as new products become available. The ability of devices to interact with each other and appear in the same app will be critical.
     
  3. Intelligent features that use cloud-based machine learning to provide lifestyle benefits which go beyond self-monitoring and user driven outcomes. For example, a camera system that automatically detects a suspicious person repeatedly walking past a home, and alerts the home owner.
     
  4. Voice control and recognition is expected to be the important mechanism for control of smart appliances and services. Telsyte research shows one-third of early adopters have used voice commands on their smartphones with greater than 75 per cent of those indicating a good or adequate experience.

According to Telsyte research, despite the expected rapid adoption, barriers such as concerns around cyber security and privacy, and high upfront costs will need to be overcome. Telsyte also found a strong correlation between those interested in IoT@home products and consumers who are environmentally conscious and look to purchase ‘green’ products.

IoT@home is also expected to be a new battleground for telecommunications companies as they seek to differentiate themselves in an increasingly price competitive marketplace driven by widespread 4G adoption and the metropolitan rollout of nbnTM services.

“While carriers will seek to lock consumers in to longer term contracts by dangling the IoT@home carrot, they will need to be more flexible and look at a trial periods, pay-as-you-go, and a modular approach to be successful,” Telsyte Managing Director Foad Fadaghi says.

For further information on the report or media enquiries contact:

Foad Fadaghi
Managing Director
Tel: +61 2 9235 5851
Email: ffadaghi@telsyte.com.au

*Please note: estimates on connected devices also includes products in addition to the IoT@home taxonomy such as smartphones, tablets and smart TVs, games consoles and other devices.

Telsyte’s Australian Internet of Things @ Home Market Study 2016 is the fourth edition from a comprehensive study program which provides subscribers with:

  • Market sizing and forecasts of the Australian IoT@home market
  • Market drivers & challenges
  • Consumer attitudes and technology adoption trends
  • IoT@home user profile
  • Analysis of the IoT@home ecosystem

In preparing this study, Telsyte used:

  • Interviews conducted with executives from service providers, network operators, manufacturers and channel partners.
  • An online survey of a representative sample of Australians 16+ years of age conducted with 1,075 respondents in November 2015.
  • Financial reports released by service providers and manufacturers.
  • On-going monitoring of local and global market and vendor trends.

About Telsyte

Telsyte delivers strategic insights and advisory services to businesses that are producing, or are impacted by, disruptive technologies. Telsyte publishes studies into emerging consumer and business markets and provides custom research and advisory services. Telsyte is an independent business unit of CSC. www.telsyte.com.au

The material in this article is copyright protected and not intended to be altered, copied, distributed or used for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, except for news reporting, comment, criticism, teaching and scholarship.

Half of all Australian smartphones on fast 4G

Price is the number one driver when it comes to switching mobile service providers

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA – BYO mobile plans are set to further shake up Australia’s mobile services market, resulting in less long term subscriptions, according to emerging technology analyst firm Telsyte.

With an estimated over 25 million handheld mobile services in operation (SIO) at the end of June 2016, more than half of handsets are now on non-contract plans leaving the door open for more movement between carriers.

Among those who switched mobile service providers in 2015, two thirds opted for non-contract plans, an increase of more than 10 per cent over 2014.

Telsyte believes Telstra’s high-profile network outages in the first half of 2016 combined with more competitive 4G plans available in the market will encourage mobile handset service subscribers to shop around.

Slowing mobile services growth

Telsyte predicts M2M and secondary devices will be the main drivers for future market growth towards 2020 while the increase of handset SIO (Services in Operation) will be limited to net population growth as the market is highly mature.

However, non-handset SIOs typically have lower ARPU (Average Revenue Per User) and do not contribute as much profit per service when compared to handsets.

This might impact the profitability of carriers. Telstra is particularly vulnerable as it has experienced some of the lowest net SIO additions from handsets ever during six month to December 2015 and some 71 per cent of its new services came from lower ARPU machine-to-machine (M2M) connections.

While Telsyte estimates Telstra will maintain a strong lead in the M2M (machine-to-machine) market, other service providers are likely to attack their handset market share aggressively.

Telsyte Senior Analyst for mobile services Alvin Lee, says despite the healthy growth, M2M services only accounted for less than 5 per cent of overall mobile services revenue.

Telsyte research is showing price remains the number one reason for switching carriers and more than half of consumers considering changing MSP are driven by price. Lee predicts price competition will likely see ARPU starting to decline for more MSPs in the second half of 2016.

4G crosses the halfway mark

Telsyte research shows that 52 per cent of mobile SIOs are now on 4G networks, with penetration expected to reach 85 per cent by 2020.

With more than half of all smartphone services using 4G services, there will be more competition around delivering services to consumers that can make use of faster download speeds and larger download allowances such as streaming music, video and games.

The ability of networks to tap into growing mobile trends such as Pokémon Go and live streaming will help grow data utilisation by consumers.  In 2015, the average growth of data allowances was 76 per cent, however data usage only grew by 45 per cent.

Telsyte estimates that 2 million Australian smartphone users had downloaded Pokémon Go by the end of July 2016.

For further information on the report or media enquiries contact:

Alvin Lee
Senior Analyst
Tel: +61 2 9235 5890
Email: alee@telsyte.com.au

  • Editors please note, Telsyte will not be publicly supplying individual service provider estimates.

    Telsyte’s Australian Mobile Services Market Study 2016 is a comprehensive study which provides subscribers with:
     
  • Market sizing and forecasts of the Australian mobile services market
  • Analysis of current offerings in the market
  • Carrier performance and review
  • End-user trends and strategic discussions
  • Mobile services market KPI

In preparing this study, Telsyte used:

  • Interviews conducted with executives from service providers, mobile operators, content providers and channel partners.
  • An online survey of a representative sample of Australians 16+ years of age conducted with 1,075 respondents in November 2015.
  • Financial reports released by service providers.
  • On-going monitoring of local and global market and vendor trends.

About Telsyte

Telsyte delivers strategic insights and advisory services to businesses that are producing, or are impacted by, disruptive technologies. Telsyte publishes studies into emerging consumer and business markets and provides custom research and advisory services. Telsyte is an independent business unit of CSC. www.telsyte.com.au

The material in this article is copyright protected and not intended to be altered, copied, distributed or used for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, except for news reporting, comment, criticism, teaching and scholarship.

Strong SVOD growth creates opportunities for content providers and resellers in Australia

Total number of paid SVOD subscriptions on track to more than double from 1.9 million in June 2016 to 4.1 million in June 2019

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA – Uptake of subscription video on demand (SVOD) services delivered over the Internet continues to run hot in Australia with 2.7 million active subscriptions expected by the end of June 2016, representing a growth rate of 46 per cent over the same period in 2015, according to new research by emerging technology analyst firm Telsyte.

Telsyte’s Australian SVOD/OTT Video Market Study 2016 found 43 per cent of Australian households now subscribe to either pay TV or SVOD services, a 4 per cent increase on the previous 12 months. The average number of SVOD subscriptions per subscribing household has increased from 1.5 to 1.7 during the same period.

The total number of paid (excluding trial users) SVOD subscriptions is on track to more than double from 1.9 million in June 2016 to 4.1 million in June 2019, when it will exceed the total number of pay TV subscriptions in Australia. As of June 2016 pay TV has a total of 3.3 million subscribers and will continue to enjoy a healthy revenue lead over SVOD.

Australians insatiable appetite for streaming content opens the door for third party players like Google, Apple, Telstra, Sony, Samsung and others to consider their content service strategies. Telsyte believes the ability to universally search across multiple service providers, including on smartphones and smart TVs, will be a compelling way for people to access SVOD content in the future.

Telsyte research shows that SVOD now takes up 30 per cent of subscriber’s mobile data allowance and mobile SVOD subscribers typically have a 65 per cent larger net data cap than those who do not stream SVOD on mobile.

SVOD revenues up as trials turn to paid subscriptions

Telsyte estimates SVOD subscriptions will have grown by almost 900,000 during the twelve months to the end of June 16. Through high conversions from free or trial usage to fee paying subscriptions, SVOD services are also generating around 40 per cent more revenue than twelve months ago.

The paid subscriber market leaders, in order, are: Netflix, Stan and Presto. Together the top three providers represent around 85 per cent of all subscriptions; however, there is a long tail of providers covering sports and special interest niches like NBA basketball, UFC matches and AFL.

Telsyte research shows the local SVOD market has entered a new phase whereby the top three competitors are much more aggressively seeking exclusive content rights deals.

Despite Netflix exploding onto the scene, local players Stan and Presto have been growing faster than Netflix in the past 12 months as appetite for more content drives people to adopt a second or third provider. One in five Netflix customers has more than one SVOD service according to Telsyte research.

Virtual reality and 4K content eyed by SVOD subscribers

Current SVOD subscribers are at the leading edge of display technology with 1 in 4 indicating an interest in video content delivered through virtual reality (VR) headsets.

In the living room SVOD users are twice as likely to own a 4K TV and 20 per cent have already shown interest in streaming 4K content over the nbn.

“New services such as VR and 4K streaming could redefine SVOD services, especially for sports related content and have the potential to lift monthly spend,” Fadaghi says.

Telsyte research across industries has shown that consumers are prepared to pay more for entertainment content such as movies, interactive games and streaming sports provided in VR.

For further information on the report or media enquiries contact:

Foad Fadaghi
Managing Director
Tel: +61 2 9235 5851
Email: ffadaghi@telsyte.com.au

  • Editors please note, Telsyte will not be publicly supplying individual service provider estimates.

Telsyte’s Australian SVOD/OTT Video Market Study 2016 is a comprehensive study which provides subscribers with:

  • Market sizing and forecasts of the Australian SVOD services market.
  • Uptake of SVOD services, pay TV and catch-up TV services.
  • Analysis of current offerings in the market.
  • Services consumption preference through devices and screens.
  • Insights into the future of subscription video services in Australia.

In preparing this study, Telsyte used:

  • Interviews conducted with executives from service providers, mobile operators, content providers and channel partners.
  • An online survey of a representative sample of Australians 16+ years of age conducted with 1,075 respondents in November 2015.
  • Financial reports released by service providers.
  • On-going monitoring of local and global market and vendor trends.

About Telsyte
Telsyte delivers strategic insights and advisory services to businesses that are producing, or are impacted by, disruptive technologies. Telsyte publishes studies into emerging consumer and business markets and provides custom research and advisory services. Telsyte is an independent business unit of CSC. www.telsyte.com.au.

The material in this article is copyright protected and not intended to be altered, copied, distributed or used for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, except for news reporting, comment, criticism, teaching and scholarship.

Fourth Edition of Digital Nation highlights Australian’s adoption of emerging technologies and online government services

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - Telsyte is pleased to announce the release of the fourth edition of Digital Nation, an infographic style report book that showcases Telsyte’s leading Australian consumer, government and enterprise ICT research.

Digital Nation combines primary research with analyst insight to tell a unique story about how technology is changing Australians’ lives and work in 2016 and what to expect in the future.

The book gives readers information on how to prepare for digital disruption and technology-led change and provides strategic insight into the explosion of devices and data that will drive new levels of engagement and commerce.

Australians positive about technology

Telsyte Managing Director Foad Fadaghi says Australians are increasingly comfortable using and adapting to new technologies.

“Staying connected is now a national pastime - Australians are clearly more dependent on the internet for entertainment and shopping than ever before,” Fadaghi says.

Telsyte research shows nearly three-quarters (73%) of the population believe faster broadband is important for Australia’s future, and as a result of being more connected 70 per cent of us are happy doing online banking.

The e-commerce market in Australia is growing strongly, with digital commerce – including digital goods and subscriptions – reaching nearly $30 billion in 2015 and sales of digital goods and services is up by more than 20 per cent year-on-year, led by the spike in uptake of Internet video streaming services and the shift to digital gaming.

Other categories of physical goods purchased online continued to grow, but their growth was curtailed by the falling Australian dollar. Physical goods e-commerce grew by four per cent from 2014 to 2015, compared to seven per cent in the previous year.

By 2019 the average household will have some 24 Internet-connected devices, up from nine in 2015 according to Telsyte research. In fact, our homes are becoming so connected we will be spending $3.2 billion on connected devices and services by the end of the decade, almost eleven-fold growth over the next four years.

Digital Nation informs business leaders on how to take advantage of all this change and how to transform their thinking to avoid competition from agile market entrants.

This year we will also see how the emergence of more automation technology – from cars to aerial drones – will change our daily lives and offer opportunities for innovation. Digital Nation reveals Australians are hungry for better technology to help improve our lives.

Attitudes to e-government growing strong

An exciting development for the fourth edition of Digital Nation is the introduction of a new e-government section titled Digital Government.

With more Australians accessing a wider range of online services than ever before, government agencies at all levels are developing citizen portals to facilitate interaction with government services.

Telsyte research indicates most (80%) people believe all government services should be available on the Internet. The federal government’s MyGov portal has been well received, with more than half of us (55%) having registered to use the portal — of whom 75 per cent agree that it provides useful services.

Government agencies still have some work to do when it comes to providing online services, with one in four of us still believing Australia is not yet a global leader in e-government.

With so many of us comfortable using e-government services, the opportunity is there for the range of services available to citizens to expand. Apps in areas such as e-health, business services and taxation can be used to streamline interactions with all levels of government.

Digital at Work

As more of our personal technology is used for business with BYO-IT (not just devices, but apps too) and more business applications become accessible to consumers, Australians are in the middle of a work-life balance revolution. Digital Nation looks at how the workplace is transforming to be more accommodating – and productive – for our increasingly technology-enabled workforce.

Within local organisations, around half of business units like marketing, HR and operations have their own IT budgets. Digital Nation reveals this trend is having a measurable impact on traditional IT departments with many CIOs having experienced problems resulting from IT purchasing outside of IT.

Telsyte Senior Analyst Rodney Gedda says in addition to the use of personal device technology in the workplace, traditional IT strategies are changing rapidly to deal with line of business spending and an influx of cloud-based services.

“More than half of Australian CIOs believe line of business IT spending will exceed central IT spending by 2020 and more than 80 per cent of enterprises will be using some cloud infrastructure service by that time. Such trends are forcing a rethink of traditional IT management practices,” Gedda says.

Cloud computing for business continues to grow strong and Digital Nation reveals how the hybrid architecture will become the predominant form of infrastructure management.

“Being able to deploy workloads on public or private clouds for the best business outcome is the foundation of a modern IT service capability,” Gedda says, adding important factors like security, integration and TCO do not go away with moving on-premise systems and applications to the cloud.

The digital transformation of Australia’s businesses is reaching the core of how they operate — including enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems.

A big challenge for Australian businesses is that ERP feature use is languishing and the top two factors for ERP success are easy to use interfaces and flexibility of the ERP system. Telsyte believes traditional ERP suites must evolve to compete with the range of cloud-based SaaS applications offering modern UIs and flexible usage models.

With so many digital and online services permeating the workplace, Australian business leaders must decide how to best apply them for a business outcome. In recent years, the emergence of Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) has provided a hosted development and testing environment for new applications. PaaS cloud services also offer developers a wide range of integration components for popular services from content management and file storage to CRM and accounting.

Digital disruption is resulting in an increase in the adoption of PaaS to develop and deploy custom applications in the cloud, according to Telsyte research. 

More than half of Australian organisations are already using or investigating PaaS to deploy custom software as more seek fit-for-purpose applications.

Digital Nation, is available for purchase as a printed hardcover book from online bookstore Blurb (US$79+GST excluding delivery) via this URL: http://www.blurb.com/b/7070796-digital-nation-2016

Customised books and bulk orders are also available. Contact: info@telsyte.com.au

About Telsyte

Telsyte delivers emerging technology insights and advisory services to businesses that are producing, or are impacted by, disruptive technologies. Telsyte publishes studies into emerging consumer, business and government markets and provides custom research to better inform strategic decision makers. Our clients include leading global technology vendors, service providers, government agencies, media companies and technology influencers among a wide range of industries. Telsyte is an independent business unit of CSC.

The material in this article is copyright protected and not intended to be altered, copied, distributed or used for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, except for news reporting, comment, criticism, teaching and scholarship.